Biosensors are an analytical device, used for the detection of medical components or details about the human body. That may be required by the doctor for further analysis of the disease or symptoms of a patient. It can be simple tools for detecting specific biological, chemical, or physical processes by reading or responding to a different physical stimulus like sound, heat, pressure, light, or any particular motion for analysis. These devices convert physical stimulus to electrical signals. They are not only used for monitoring health but can also be used for the safety of food, medicines, environmental, and other substances. The detector or transducer transforms the signal into another one by a process of physicochemical way resulting from the interaction of analyses with the biological element, to easily measure and quantify. The biosensors readers are usually customized according to the requirement of the biosensors. Biosensor market is growing due to the increasing demand for medical equipment required at home for early diagnosis, check-up, and home-based healthcare services as it allows medical monitoring of the patient at home without even going to doctor’s clinic or hospital and to wait for physician. These biosensors are being used widely in the healthcare industry due to their properties of flexible, faster analysis, at a lower cost, and user-friendly in usage.
Types of biomedical sensors are: -
Physical Biosensor is a mostly used sensor they have been segmented on their general working method of sensing hearing, sight, touch, reaction to external physical stimuli. The physical biosensors are classified into piezoelectric biosensors and thermometric biosensors.
Piezoelectric biosensor works on the law of oscillations transform due to a collection jump on the surface of a piezoelectric crystal, biosensors have their modified surface with an antigen or antibody, a molecularly stamped polymer, and heritable information. Detection parts are normally united by using nanoparticles.
Thermometric biosensors are used for measuring or estimation of serum cholesterol. Thermal biosensor measures the thermal energy released or absorbed in a biochemical reaction.
Optical biosensor uses fiber optics and even optoelectronic transducers. The optical biosensor objective is to produce a signal proportionate to the concentration of a measured substance. Optical biosensors are classified into two type’s direct optical detection biosensor and labeled optical detection biosensor.
This sensor is based on the reaction of enzymatic catalysis that consumes or generates electrons. The biosensor transforms biochemical information, such as analyte concentrations into an analytically useful signal in current or voltage. Electrochemical biosensors are classified into four types Amperometric Biosensors, Potentiometric Biosensors, Impedimetric Biosensors, and Voltammetric Biosensors.
It is a self-contained incorporated device based on the amount of the current ensuing from the oxidation offering exact quantitative analytical information. This biosensor uses the “Clark oxygen” electrode and works by the amount of flow of current between the counter electrode and redox response at the operational electrode.
This biosensor provides a logarithmic reply by means of a high energetic range they are frequently complete by monitor producing the electrode prototypes lying on a synthetic substrate, covered by a performing polymer with some enzyme is connected.
The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a responsive indicator for a broad range of physical and chemical properties. Impedimetric biosensor for differentiating the invention of the biosensors as well as to examine the catalyzed responses of enzymes lectins, nucleic acids, receptors, whole cells, and antibiotics.
It is based on a new voltammetric biosensor to notice acrylamide, it is built with a carbon glue electrode customized with Hb (Haemoglobin). It shows a reversible oxidation or reduction procedure of Hb(Fe).
Wearable biosensors are digital devices that can be worn on the human body using different wearable systems like smartwatches, tattoos, smart shirts, that will allow recording BP, Blood Glucose level, heartbeat rate, etc. These devices are easy to use, flexible, and affordable. They provide a patient’s real-time fitness status, this results from help in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient.
Biomedical sensors have ample of applications like: -